Understanding the Geology of Silver

10 Gram Silver Bar
10 Gram Silver Bar

Silver – Overview 

This soft, white, precious metal is valued for its beauty and industrial uses. It has a history that goes back as far as 4,000 B.C. Around the same time, techniques to refine silver and separate it from other metals were identified and practiced. As research on natural elements progressed, silver got its chemical name and secured its position in the periodic table in group 11 and period 5. For our science enthusiasts, this malleable metal has the following element properties: 

    • Atomic Number – 47
    • Atomic Weight – 107.8
    • Melting Point – 1,861.4oF
    • Boiling Point – 4,014oF
    • Specific Gravity – 10.5
    • Luster – Metallic
    • Mohs Hardness – 2.5 to 3 

Because of its rarity and high industrial demand, silver is considered a precious metal with a high economic value. Its physical properties make it the best possible metal for various uses in a wide variety of industries. 

For starters, it has electrical and thermal conductance that is higher than any other metal, which makes it valuable in the electronic industry.  Silver is also sort after because of its exceptional ability to convert ethylene into its oxide, a prerequisite of many organic compounds. However, it is the least reactive of the transition elements.

Moreover, it has better reflectivity at most temperatures. Finally, its color and attractive finish make it a desirable choice for coins, tableware, jewelry and many other objects.

Given its uses and properties, silver is often the material of choice. However, unlike other precious metals, the value of silver is often not reflected in the price, which makes it one of the most underrated precious metals.

Let’s take a closer look at how silver is found in nature.  

The Geology of Silver 

The precious metal occurs in nature as one of the four following forms.

  • as a natural element; 
  • as an essential component of silver minerals; 
  • as an alloy with other metals; and 
  • as a trace element in the ores of other metals. 

Below we intend to understand the geology of the precious metal better.

Silver as a Natural Element 

Silver rarely occurs as a natural element. Instead, it is often found with other metals, including gold, copper, quartz and sulfides and other metals’ arsenides. In placer deposits, silver is rarely discovered in significant amounts. Because it does not oxidize readily, silver can also be found above the ores of other metals in its natural state. However, the precious metal reacts with hydrogen sulfide that results in a discolored surface, including silver sulfide, also known as acanthite. Researchers have found many specimens as a natural element that have been exposed and reacted with hydrogen, and have an acanthite coating.

Silver in this form is often associated with hydrothermal activity. In areas of abundance in this activity, silver can be found as cavity fillings. Some of these deposits are rich enough to support mining. However, mining for silver alone is often not feasible. Therefore, the economic viability of silver extraction depends upon the presence of other valuable minerals. For extraction of such deposits, an underground operation is undertaken that follows the veins and cavities where silver in its natural state is found. 

As an Essential Component of Silver Minerals

Close up of Silver CoinsThere is a surprisingly high number of minerals that contain silver as an essential component. There are over 35 different distinct silver minerals which include but are not limited to the following. 

  • Acanthite, 
  • Berryite, 
  • Chlorargyrite, 
  • Dyscrasite,
  • Empressite, 
  • Fettelite, 
  • Petzite, 
  • Samsonite

Each of the silver minerals is distinct and rare, however, a few silver minerals exist in quantities that warrant mining. Silver minerals can be found as silicates, sulfides, iodates, carbonates, oxides, nitrates and bromates. 

Alloys and Amalgams of Silver 

If you take a closer look at the placer deposits of gold, you will find gold alloyed with small quantities of silver. When the ratio between gold and silver reaches at least 20% silver, the alloy is called “electrum” which is a combination of silver and gold. When gold is refined and purified, that leads to the production of a significant amount of silver. Interestingly enough,  most of the silver available on the market today is a byproduct of gold extraction and purification.

The metal can also be found as a natural alloy of mercury, which is found in the oxidation zones of silver deposits. This amalgam of silver is also associated with cinnabar, which is a toxic mercury sulfide mineral. 

As a Trace Element in the Ores of Other Metals

The other most common source of silver is its occurrence as a trace element in the ores of other metals. It is often found along with other commonly extracted metals, including copper, lead and zinc and can be found as an inclusion within the ore. Moreover, it can be found as a substituted metal ion within the ore’s atomic structure. However, there is a possibility that the value of silver may exceed the value of the primary metal within the ore.

Silver – Extraction and Production Around the World 

Silver is found all around the world. Over 50% of its production comes from North, Central and South America. Other contributors of silver outside America include Russia, China and Australia. 

Silver deposits are usually associated with magmatic and hydrothermal activity. Major mineral deposits are therefore found in these regions. The association between geothermal activity and silver deposits is more pronounced in the Americas, where the silver production follows the Andes Mountain Range. In other parts of the world, the production of silver is related to igneous activity regardless of its geologic age, but a different trend has been observed in Europe, where silver production is associated with historic volcanic activity. 


Silver is a precious metal with various industrial and commercial uses. While its worth is often not reflected in its economic value, silver still remains a rare, precious metal, given how it is found in nature. 

How Tunnel Boring Machines Work

NYC subway tunnel with tracks crossing
NYC Subway Tunnel. Note the concrete slabs, called rings on the sides and ceiling of the tunnel Photo by wirestock – freepik.com

Did you ever wonder how a tunnel is created?  Well, you’ve come to the right place.

Human ingenuity has taken us from the industrial revolution to space exploration, but it has also taken us underground, from the giant Bagger 293 bucket wheel excavator for mining to machines that crush through the dirt to make tunnels deep below the surface.

A Little Tunnel History

In the earlier days, boring through the underground required many hours of tedious labor. It was not just the dig that was time-consuming but buttressing the area around the tunnel so that it stayed safe was also tedious.

Men would create concrete rings and secure them along the top of the tunnel and alongside the walls.  This would ensure that the tunnel didn’t weaken and collapse.

Assembling concrete rings were previously done with manual labor

The process of securing the tunnel by hand was the normal way of doing things back in the day, but now, all that hard, unhealthy labor is a thing of the past. Why? Enter the tunnel boring machine (TBM).

The Tunnel Boring Machine

Tunnel Boring Machine

Power Saw
Photo by Greyson Joralemon on Unsplash

If there was ever a device that one would call a machine, the TBM would be just that. Large, noisy but effective, it is used to cut through soil and rock much like a power saw is used on wood. As the saw’s steel blade spins, it cuts right through the wood, which is similar to the job of the boring machine, only larger. Much larger!

How Does the TBM Work?

The machine consists of three major parts (actually, a lot more, but we’ll keep it simple so that we don’t bore (pun intended) you with all the intricate details). 

The Three Parts are: 

  • Cutter-head (front)
  • Tunnel shield (middle)
  • Trailing gear (rear)

Of course, each of these sections is made up of smaller parts and together they comprise the boring machine.

The Cutting Head

Preparation for TBM cutting head to be lowered into a tunnel
Preparation for TBM cutting head to be lowered into a tunnel. Photo by david carballar on Unsplash

We spoke about the saw, but what does this saw have that cuts the wood so precisely? It is a circular piece of steel with cutting blades.

For the TBM, they are called disc cutters and are integrated onto the edges of a round piece of steel. For the TBM, the cutting head is located at the very front of the machine. 

As the boring machine’s cutter-head rotates, it breaks through the rock and/or soil at a rate of 2.7 revolutions per minute and at a pace of about 50 feet per day. 

The machine looks like a giant worm, expanding about 272 feet in length. It is this long because after the soil is extracted, it is sent down long conveyor belts where it is extracted to the surface and carted away.  See these videos below, which provide expert explanations about how the Tunnel Boring Machine operates. 

The Tunnel Shield 

A tunneling shield is a cylindrical protective structure that is located just behind the cutting head and is used to shelter the workers from the dangers of falling dirt and debris and/or actual collapse of the tunnel.

The shield is used as a temporary support structure until the tunnel is secured with concrete (see Tunnel Rings below).  The first shield was designed by Marc Isambard Brunel and was rectangular in design with iron scaffolding and consisting of three levels. Then it was later modified into a cylindrical form, which is what is used today.

What are Tunnel Rings?

Tunnel Ring
Tunnel rings. From HerrenknechtAG video above.

The tunneling shield is designed to be used only until the tunnel is safely secured with a more permanent process; as such, prefabricated concrete rings are secured along the roof and sides of the tunnel to stabilize it and turn it into a permanent structure. The process begins when the cutting head stops spinning, synchronized to do so each time a new set of rings are needed to be installed. 

A robot called an erector lifts each ring and sets it in place along the tunnel lining, resulting in a solid cylindrical wall of concrete at the top and along the sidewalls, subsequently maintaining the structural integrity of the tunnel.  

The rings are assembled as segments from above-ground factories. They are transported from the factory to the tunnel location, moved down into the tunnel and onto the boring machine where the erector lifts them and secures them inside the tunnel.

Precast molded lining sections were first patented in 1874 by James Henry Greathead, a mechanical and civil engineer famous for his work on the London Underground. Greathead also improved the tunnel shield from its rectangle form into its current form of cylindrical steel.

This process of cutting through the dirt then stopping so that the rings can be installed alternates every 5–7 feet. The cutting heads spin, evacuating the earth in front of it, then stops and the erector builds the supporting rings and then the cutting head begins to spin again, moving forward at its slow but efficient pace.

Trailing Gear

How Does the Evacuated Dirt and Rock Get Taken Out from Underground?

Tunnel Boring Machine
Tunnel Boring Machine trailer section. Screenshot from video HerrenknechtAG

Enter the trailing mechanisms. They include a conveyor belt that removes the soil that was excavated from the cutter head. As the cutter pulls dirt out, it places it onto a belt conveyor which consists of a machine belt, cross belt and a tunnel belt. The tunnel belt is dynamic, in that it expands as the machine digs forward. The tunnel belt can expand up to 18 miles back to the extraction point where the soil is lifted to the ground.

The first two belts, the machine and cross belt are located at the very front of the TBM and the tunnel belt is the conveyor that moves the debris through the TBM to the area where it is taken out of the tunnel. 


The engineering that goes into the assembly of a tunnel boring machine is quite sophisticated, but fascinating as well. 

In this article, we simplified the process so that it can be easily understandable and we hope you were able to gain a good understanding of how tunnels are created, so the next time you drive through a tunnel or ride through the subway, you can be grateful for the ingenuity and hard work of the people who built it. 


Palladium – A Metal More Precious than Gold


Pallidum Metal
Hi-Res Images of Chemical Elements, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

You might have noticed that palladium is listed in the metal exchanges along with gold and platinum. That is because it is one of the most precious metals found on Earth. Palladium is a silvery, shiny metal that gives color to white gold. It was discovered in 1803 by an English chemist William Hyde Wollaston.

The metal was first isolated following a series of chemical reactions that involved dissolving platinum with several other acids, including hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. However, it was not until 1805 that the researchers working on discovering this precious metal declared it as a newly found element. 

The rare metal, palladium, gets its name from “Pallas” which is the third-largest asteroid in the asteroid belt and was discovered in 1802, shortly before the discovery of palladium. 

Chemically, Palladium is one of six elements in the platinum group which consists of the following:

    • Platinum 
    • Rhodium
    • Ruthenium
    • Osmium and 
    • Iridium 

These elements’ chemical structure makes them an excellent catalyst and therefore, they have wide industrial applications. But before we get into its uses, let’s look at a few facts about this rare metal. 

    • Symbol – Pd 
    • Atomic Number – 46
    • Atomic Weight – 106.4
    • Density – 12.02 g/cm3
    • State at Room Temperature – Solid
    • Melting Point – 2,831oF
    • Boiling Point – 5,360 oF
    • # of isotopes – 29
    • The metal is malleable and ductile 
    • Palladium does not react with air

Uses of Palladium 

Let’s look at some of the most common uses of palladium and the industries that use it.


One of the biggest industrial users of palladium in the automotive industry, where the metal is used as a catalytic converter. It works by changing most polluting compounds’ chemical composition so they become less environmentally harmful chemicals. For years, palladium was the top choice for catalysts, but given the significant increase in the price of the metal, automotive manufacturers are starting to look for less pricey alternatives. 

Precious Metals

Another common use of palladium is its use as an investment asset. Given the metal’s rarity, it is one of the highly valued investments and is considered a safe store of value. It is because of its value that the palladium coins and bars have been issued and used as an investment by investors around the world. 


Palladium in White Gold Jewelry
Palladium in White Gold Jewelry Photo: Pexels

While yellow, traditional gold is still preferred for jewelry, white gold is another popular metal. Palladium is used as one of the alloys that give strength, color, and shiny texture to white gold. Its pure form is malleable and soft with a 950 fineness.


Palladium is also used in dental amalgams. The rare metal is combined with small amounts of silver, copper, mercury, and tin to help fight against dental corrosion. Moreover, it improves the stability and quality of dental fillings. While palladium is used in minimal quantities, use in dentistry is one of its most critical uses. 

Other Uses 

    • The use in electronic industry 
    • In the manufacturing of professional, concert-grade flutes
    • Photographic printing 
    • Fuel cells, including hydrogen purification 

What Makes Palladium More Valuable than Gold?

Investment Graph
Photo by Markus Winkler on Unsplash

Now that you already know what palladium is and what are some of its common uses, let’s look at the most important question. What makes palladium more valuable than gold?

In 2019, palladium was one of the four most expensive metals along with gold and platinum. But the trend continued long after 2019, and the precious metal is still one of the most expensive metals out there. Here are a few reasons for the increasing price trend. 

The demand for palladium, particularly from the automotive industry, continued to rise as the world became more environmentally friendly and the demand from China particularly rose as pollution is a major concern. 

Moreover, the supply side didn’t respond much to the rising demand. The metal is primarily mined in South Africa and Russia and the producers are not proactive in reacting to the increasing demand. In 2021, the supply fell short of the demand for the 10th year in a row. 

Did You Know?

    • According to the USGS, the U.S. is one of the biggest platinum group importers (which also includes palladium). 
    • Palladium has an incredible power to absorb hydrogen. This rare metal can absorb up to 900 times its volume of hydrogen. Because of this ability, palladium is widely used to purify and store highly volatile hydrogen gas. 
    • Palladium is used for photo printing that makes your photographs look long-lasting. The process uses palladium salts, which become embedded in the photo paper and give it a matte appearance and longevity. 
    • While palladium is relatively inactive, gold jewelry can cause allergic reactions in some people. If you already have a nickel allergy, you are at a higher risk of sensitivity from palladium as well. 
    • Palladium can be somewhat toxic for the human body, but the metal decreases the heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, it can lead to kidney and liver damage as well as cause damage to the bone marrow. Compounds of palladium such as palladium chloride can be toxic when inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin. 

Latest on the Precious Metal 

The supply of palladium has been falling short for a decade now, but here is some good news about this precious metal. Researchers at Brown University and Rhode Island have found a new way to use the cheaper palladium nanoparticles, which work as a kind of catalytic converter to facilitate water filtration. 

The prototype water filtration system is currently under testing. The objective is to find out if the system can work on a larger scale at a low cost. 

Moreover, research in other areas such as hydrogen storage ability is also underway. Soon other considerations may materialize for palladium. But investing in pallidum to diverse your investment portfolio might not be a bad idea in the long run, especially during this COVID crisis. We will just have to wait and see. 

6 Reasons Why She Will Feel Special When You Give Her Amethyst

Photo by Conscious Design on Unsplash

When it comes to expressing love through jewels, the diamond is considered the top choice and colored diamonds are even more in desire; however, rare. But contrary to popular belief, this sparkling gem is not the only gem that signifies true love; amethyst is an equally strong contender to express devotion to one’s paramour. 

The dark and deep, vivaciously violet gemstone is an enchanting mineral that also happens to be the birthstone for February, the month of love. Hence, it only makes sense that lovers present the purple gemstone to one another when professing their love. 

With the world in a state of chaos, primarily due to the pandemic, people are learning to be grateful for the blessings they have, such as a loving partner. This means lovers are searching far and wide to present a thoughtful gift to their beau to appreciate them.

 While a meaningful present could be anything for different people, for most, a stunning piece of crystal tucked in a pendant or ring seems to be the perfect souvenir embodying love. If you also belong to the pro-diamond camp, we have an alluring proposition for you. This time around, choose a different route and go with amethyst to surprise your other half.  Why you ask? Here’s why. 

Amethyst is The Jewel of Gods

If you are one of the mythical lovers, then you can choose amethyst to express your feelings to your beau. Traditionally, and even until now, the pretty purple crystal is believed to be the choice of bishops because of its supposed pure essence. Hence, if you have realized how much your partner means to you and want to relay your heartfelt emotions, go for amethyst and be sure to educate her about the fantastic qualities of amethyst to make your gift all the more meaningful.

Amethyst is Stunning Yet Affordable

Amethyst is as stunning as most other precious stones without even being one, which means you get all the glittery glamour of an exclusive gem without the cost associated with other gemstones. Simply put, the purple sparkler is just as sparkling as any other precious stone but at reasonable prices. 

So now, you can charm your beau with a thoughtful gift without burdening your pocket much. That’s not to say that you shouldn’t splurge once in a while, but with amethyst, you can enjoy class even when the budget is a bit tight!

Amethyst Goes Well With The Colors of Winter 

The chilly season colors the environment in soft, cool pastel shades, creating a romantic ambiance all over. With such a peaceful atmosphere around in the frosty weather, you want to give your partner something that’s not too overpowering while being sufficiently impactful. So, if you plan to present a sparkler to your paramour, you need something that blends in well, like the stunning amethyst.

Amethyst comes in gorgeous shades of purple that do not stand out too much instead complement the winter season. 

Amethyst is the Birthstone of February

Assortment of gemstonesIf you are into astrology, you must know of the birthstones of all the twelve months of the year.

And as it turns out, amethyst is the birthstone of February, which means it’s the perfect present to celebrate true love. 

Saint Valentine’s Ring Had Amethyst

Anyone who knows of Valentine’s Day (which means everyone, because who doesn’t) must have heard of Saint Valentines, the man supposedly responsible for the day of love.

Saint Valentine was a Roman priest in the third century who officiated secret weddings against the authorities. In other words, it can be said that Saint Valentines was a fervent advocate of love, no matter how forbidden. He was later captured and imprisoned at a noble’s home, where he healed his captor’s blind daughter and converted the entire household into Christianity. Consequently, Saint Valentine was tortured and killed on February 14th. But before dying, he wrote a letter to the girl and signed it as your valentine

Whether the story of Saint Valentine is the real narrative behind the day of love or not, one thing is for sure that the Roman Priest was a dedicated supporter of love. So, it’s only natural to give your paramour something that is linked with the legendary Saint Valentines like amethyst.

Legend has it that the Roman Priest also used to wear a ring that had an amethyst with a picture of cupid on top. You don’t need to have a tiny cupid on your purple stone as long as you have the violet stone to celebrate the love between you and your significant other, you are on the right path.  

Amethyst Makes You Wise or So Leonardo Da Vinci Thought

The famous Italian painter and polymath Leonardo Da Vinci, known for his knowledge, talent and vision, admired the alluring amethyst like no other. He believed that amethyst makes a person wise, frees them from evil thoughts and helps them become shrewd when running business affairs.

Whether the Italian savant was right to think so highly of amethyst or just spoke his mind based on experience can never be known. But if you want to follow in the footsteps of a legendary scholar, you should definitely look into buying an amethyst. Even if not for your partner, then buy the violet crystal for yourself to show some self-love because why not?

Amethyst Keeps You Sober

If your partner likes to down liquor a bit much, you should buy them amethyst to keep them from getting intoxicated beyond their capacity. 

The epithet amethyst comes from a Greek word, amethystos, which means remedy against intoxication. Hence, the ancients considered the purple sparkler an aid against drunkenness. The Egyptians would wear amethyst as the gem of protection in amulets around the chest.

Get your better-half an amethyst- also fondly called nature’s tranquilizer, to appease the drinker in them while ensuring they’ll be safe, naturally!

The Bottom Line

Amethyst is not just pretty; it’s also quite sturdy, which is evident from its score on the Mohs scale of hardness. The violet gem has a whopping 7, which may not be as high as the diamond’s 9; it’s still enough to last a lifetime. 

So don’t wait for another second to tell your partner how much they mean to you and how grateful you are to have them in your life with a gorgeous piece of jewelry flaunting a chunky amethyst. 

Want to know more about Amethyst, visit our page here.

What Your Birthstone Says About You?

Purple mineral in a ring setting
Photo Pixaby

What Does Your Birthstone Say About You?

While a birthstone is a great piece of jewelry that may look nice on your finger, it does so much more. They can be a representation of your personality traits. Each birthstone is one-of-a-kind and symbolizes different meanings. Do you want to know how your birthstone describes you? Find out here!

1. January- Garnet

This deep red gemstone resembles a pomegranate seed. It is one-of-a-kind and comes in many different shades, such as orange, purple, green and pink, but is most famous for its dark red hue. 

If you follow the mystifying values of gemstones, the garnet is known to represent confidence and give off positive energy. They are also known to symbolize caring and empathy. And there are more spiritual elements to this gem. It is supposed to provide you with spontaneous personalities and feisty ones at that.

If garnet is your birthstone, you’re likely to take on the challenges that come your way.

2. February- Amethyst

Purple Amethyst in a ring setting
Photo Pixaby

According to early legends, this stone has been long associated with Bacchus, the Roman god of agriculture, wine, and fertility. If you follow mythology, this Roman god is equivalent to the Greek god Dionysus.

This is probably because of its color, which is a deep purple. Amherst itself is known to symbolize peace and tranquility and is a potent gemstone when it comes to religious jewelry; the pope wears an amethyst ring apart from his other jewels.; although, we are sure it’s not because he believes in Bacchus and Dionysus, but maybe it is just because of the gemstone’s beauty.

If amethyst is your birthstone, you are likely to be intelligent, kind, gentle as well as spiritual. You are also probably great at business and are positive and optimistic in nature. Not only are they known to be calm, but have a calming effect on others as well. 

For more information on Amethyst, check out our 2018 article.

3. March- Aquamarine

Aquamarine stone on a ring
Photo by Andy Holmes on Unsplash

Like the ocean? Then this gem is for you! As you can guess, especially by its name, this gorgeous stone is associated with the sea. Its colors vary from greens to blues, the rarest of which is a dark blue.

In some ancient cultures, people believed that this stone could guard sailors and ensure them a safe voyage. 

Those with this birthstone are known to be straightforward, great at communication and inspiring. They are also great at settling disputes in a fair and just manner. We can use them more than ever now!

4. April – Diamond

Sparkling Diamond
Diamond gem with reflection on blue background

What’s the first thing that comes to your mind when you think of diamonds? Its shine? Cut? Hardness? Diamonds, probably the most famous mineral known are also the most sort after stone in the world.

Well, April borns are known to be strong just like the diamond. In addition, they are courageous, positive and pure-hearted; however, they can also be pretty stubborn, after all, they take after the hardiness of their stone. They are also determined and when they make up their mind to do something, nothing can get in the way. Their strong character, paired with their strict moral code makes them extremely loyal and dependable, so if you have a friend born in April, don’t let them go.

And if you are thinking about getting one for yourself or your loved one, don’t forget about the 4 Cs!

5. May – Emerald

An emerald gemstone in organic conditionThis exotic green gem is luxurious in nature. Those born in May are known to be empaths; they are loving, kind and go out of their way to help others.

They give excellent advice and value honest relationships. Many borns are also known to be romantics just as the stone has associations with love and fertility and are also great at matchmaking! Because they are empaths, they can be a little introverted and prefer small gatherings to bigger groups.

6. June – Pearl

Woman wearing pearls
Photo by JJ Jordan on Unsplash

This beautiful gemstone will always be a classic. They come from the water and are radiant. Those born in this month are considered to be fiercely loyal, considerate, patient and thoughtful.

They also love to travel and love getting out of their comfort zone. If you have this birthstone, you are known to make great decisions and should listen to your intuition more often.

7. July – Ruby

Ruby Ring in a BoxRuby is considered to be the king of gems, so if you’re born in July you’re pretty lucky. Those with this birthstone are known to have a zest for life, are bold and courageous as well as ambitious. Their confident nature makes them great leaders. They give off energy and can charm anyone around them.

8. August – Peridot

This stone is vibrant in color and radiates positive energy. August borns are known to be extra loving and thoughtful. They give off a warm and welcoming aura that attracts people to them, whether strangers or friends. They are bold and not afraid to be who they are. August borns are extroverts and can get anyone to trust them due to their friendly vibe.

9. September – Sapphire

This precious mineral comes in a variety of colors, but is most famous for its blue color. People with this stone are considered to be calm and slightly introverted, only opening up to people they are close to. It takes them time to build trust with someone, but when they do, it is usually life-long. They are wise and think carefully before they speak.

10. October – Pink Tourmaline

Tourmaline minerals in a boxThis exotic gem comes in the most delicious hues of pinks. Over the years, it has been known to possess many healing powers. Those who have this birthstone are considered to be lively and passionate. They are also known to have a great intuitive sense. Although they seem calm on the outside, don’t be fooled! These October borns are restless and have an urge to explore the world. Their minds are the opposite of calm and are always thinking about what’s next.

11. November – Topaz

Those with this birthstone are considered to be extremely lucky. They are known to have it all, whether it’s finances, travel, career, etc. This birthstone holder has an important role to play in the lives of the people around them. Not only are they the life of the party but also the glue that holds their family together. They give off positive energy and therefore attract that in return.

12. December – Blue Topaz

This one of a kind stone is known for its breathtaking shades of blues. Those born in this month are considered to be old souls and wise beyond their years. They are famous for being friendly and can get along with practically anyone around them. December borns attract love and are loving and caring themselves. They are creative and make great lovers.