Computer Data Storage – How Times Have Changed!

A Bit of Data Storage History

As computers gained momentum in the 1980s, the need to store information on a mobile platform was intensifying. Floppy disks were the first portable devices that were invented. They were invented by a team of IBM engineers led by Alan Shugart in 1971 but they didn’t gain popularity until the early 1980s. The disks were very light in weight and would “flop” if you waved them; hence, ‘floppy disks.’

old diskettes set and flash disk isolated on white background
Comparison of sizes of the floppy disks. Photo: iStock

They were large  8″ in diameter disks and could store a maximum of 100 KB of data. That’s about 10 full pages of words plus maybe a few small pictures. So if you had a thesis to write or hundreds of pictures to save, you would have been out of luck.

Woman holding two 5.25" floppy disks
5.25″, 1.44 MB ‘floppy’ disks. iStock

In 1981, the 3.5-inch floppy disk was introduced, which stored up to 1.44 MB of data. They were hard disks, meaning that they didn’t “flop” but their storage capacity was over 100 times more than the 8″ floppy disks that were initially created.

Floppy Disk Issues

Floppy disks were not without their flaws. They were susceptible to damage from magnets and dust, and could easily be corrupted by physical damage or exposure to heat. They were also slow, with read and write speeds that could be frustratingly slow for users.Despite these limitations, these disks played an important role in the history of computing. They enabled the widespread distribution of software and documents and helped establish the personal computer as a powerful tool for individuals and small businesses. 

Today, floppy disks are essentially a relic of the past, but their impact on computing history cannot be overlooked.

The Introduction of the Compact Disk

By the early 2000s, floppy disks were being phased out as other storage options, such as CDs were becoming more popular and they were a revolution in data storage capacity. From 1.44 MB of the 3.5,” floppies came 50 megabytes (MB) to 700 MB of data storage on a CD.

This capacity not only allowed users to store text and image data but also music and videos.

Enter the Flash Drive, AKA USB

Not to be confused with USB cables, these are plastic devices, about an inch long that plug into the USB port, the same port that those cables connect to.

A typical flash drive is a hard plastic device about the size of your thumb, which is why they are sometimes called thumb drives. Their storage capacity blows away any of their predecessor’s CDs or floppies with storage starting with 4 GB up to 256 GB. That is over 1,000 times more storage space than the first hard drives that came onto the market.

Comparisions of computer storage devices
Comparison of computer storage devices. Photo: Wikimedia CC

What are All Those Types of USB Connectors For?

USB Connectors
Photo: iStock

What are These Things?

OK so you got a bunch of those wires with different looking ends and you don’t know which one of these connects to the device you want to connect to. Here we will unfold that mystery for you!

USB Overview

They are called USB (Universal Serial Bus) cables. There are several types of USB connectors that have been developed over the years,  but it is worth noting that USB connectors can have different versions, indicating the supported USB specification and data transfer speeds.

For example, USB 2.0, USB 3.0 (also known as USB 3.1 Gen 1), USB 3.1 (also known as USB 3.1 Gen 2), and USB 3.2 are different versions with varying capabilities.

USB (Universal Serial Bus) cables come in various types, each designed for specific purposes and compatibility with different devices.

Here’s an overview of the most common types of USB cables:

USB Connectors
USB, HDMI, ethernet icon set. Mini, micro, lightning, type A, B, and C connectors. Photo: iStock
    • USB Type-A: USB Type-A is the standard and most recognizable USB connector. It has a rectangular shape and a flat, rectangular end. These are most commonly found on computers, laptops, and game consoles. They are used to connect peripherals such as keyboards, mice, printers, external hard drives, and flash drives.
    • USB Type-B: These connectors are larger than Type-A. They are square-shaped and have beveled corners. You would see them on laptops that connect to a printer or external hard drives.There are various subtypes of Type-B connectors. Let’s take a look.
      • Standard-B: Standard-B connectors are the ones you would be most familiar with. They connect printers, scanners, and other peripheral devices. They have a square shape with two rounded corners but are less common in modern devices.
      • Mini-B: Mini-B connectors are smaller than Standard-B and were commonly used with older cameras, MP3 players, and other small electronic devices. They are gradually being phased out in favor of Micro-B connectors.
      • Micro-B: These connectors are smaller than both Standard-B and Mini-B connectors. They are commonly used with smartphones, tablets, portable hard drives, and other compact devices. Micro-B connectors are reversible, making them more user-friendly. There are two subtypes of Micro-B connectors: Micro-B USB 2.0 and Micro-B USB 3.0.
    • USB Type-C: Type-C is a newer, versatile, and increasingly popular connector. It features a small, reversible design that allows for easy plug orientation. Type-C cables can be plugged in either way, eliminating the frustration of trying to find the correct orientation. They are used in a wide range of devices, including smartphones, tablets, laptops, desktop computers, gaming consoles, and peripherals. Type-C cables have numerous advantages over their predecessors. They support faster data transfer speeds and higher power delivery and can transmit audio and video signals through alternate modes like DisplayPort or HDMI. Type-C connectors are backward compatible with USB 2.0 and USB 3.0 standards using appropriate adapters or cables.
    • USB Mini-A and Mini-AB: Mini-A connectors are smaller and less common than Type-A connectors. They were primarily used in older digital cameras, MP3 players, and other portable devices. USB Mini-AB connectors combine the features of both Mini-A and Mini-B connectors, allowing devices to function as either a USB On-The-Go (OTG) host or a peripheral device.
    • USB 3.0 Type-A and Type-B: USB 3.0, also known as USB 3.1 Gen 1, introduced faster data transfer speeds compared to USB 2.0. USB 3.0 Type-A connectors are backward compatible with USB 2.0 Type-A ports, while USB 3.0 Type-B connectors provide improved speeds for compatible devices such as external hard drives.
    • USB 3.1 Type-C: USB 3.1, also known as USB 3.1 Gen 2, further improved data transfer speeds over USB 3.0. USB 3.1 Type-C connectors offer faster speeds, higher power delivery, and support for alternate modes for audio, video, and other protocols. USB 3.1 Type-C cables are backward compatible with USB 3.0 Type-A and Type-B connectors using appropriate adapters or cables.
  • Summary

    It may be confusing in the beginning, but keep in mind that the most used one is the Type-A, and then you can take it from there.

AI 101 – How Does Artificial Intelligence Work?

Illustration of computer chips on a wall with a woman in front
Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

Overview

You are a robot, but like the scarecrow in the Wizard of Oz, you have no brain. John the human wants to change that, so he filled your brain with a model of a fire engine. 

But John also wants you to identify the fire engine by knowing the components that comprise it, so he provides you with this knowledge.

In addition, he provides you with information as to other variations of the fire engine vehicle, meaning that if the parts do not entirely match that of a fire engine, the components may be more closely matched to that of an ambulance or possibly some other type of vehicle.

Photo of a fire engine
Photo by John Torcasio on Unsplash
Now you have the data necessary to identify a fire engine and know what the parts are that encompass it. You can use this knowledge to compare the model to other objects and determine if any of those objects are fire engines or decide that it is something else entirely, and if so, what else could it be?
Congratulations! You are now a machine that can differentiate between objects, or more specifically, you are artificial intelligence!
Ok, we admit this scenario is quite simplified but the idea is to provide the concept of artificial intelligence. So now, let’s dwell into the details of exactly how this works, but before we continue, here are a few technical terms that you should familiarize yourself with. We will be discussing them in more detail further into this article.
Datapoint = The components that make up the model (parts of the fire engine).
Dataset = The combination of all the components together that make up the model (the vehicle as a whole unit).
Supervised Learning = The ability to look at a particular object and compare it to the object (model) that you have in your possession.

AI is Learning

The basic premise behind AI is to create algorithms (computer programs) that can scan unknown data and compare it to data that it is already familiar with. So let’s start by looking at another example.

Image of a fork
Image by Susann Mielke from Pixabay. Text by SMS.

The AI Mindset

Is this a fork or a spoon? Is it a knife? Well, they both have handles, but this one has spikes. Let me look up what pieces of information I have in my database that look like this item. Oh, I have a piece that resembles this spike pattern, so it must be a fork!

AI algorithms scan the unknown data’s characteristics, called patterns. It then matches those patterns to data it already has recognized, called pattern recognition. The data it recognizes is called labeled data or training data and the complete set of this labeled data is called the dataset. The result is that it decides as to what that unknown item is.

The patterns within the dataset are called data points, also called input points. This whole process of scanning, comparing, and determining is called machine learning. (There are seven steps involved in machine learning and we will touch upon those steps in our Artificial Intelligence 102 article).

For example, if you are going to write a computer program that will allow you to draw a kitchen on the screen, you would need a dataset that contains data points that make up the different items in the kitchen; such as a stove, fridge, sink, as well as utensils to name a few; hence our analysis of the fork in the image above.

Note: The more information (data points) that is input into the dataset, the more precise its algorithm’s determination will be.

Now, let’s go a bit deeper into how a computer program is written.

Writing the Computer Program

Computer Program Instructions
Photo: iStock

We spoke about how computers are programmed using instructions in our bits and bytes article, but as a refresher, let’s recap!

Computer programs, called algorithms tell the computer to do things by reading instructions that a human programmer has entered.  One of our examples was a program that distributes funds to an ATM recipient. It was programmed to distribute the funds if there was enough money in the person’s account and not if there wasn’t.

But THIS IS NOT AI since the instructions are specific and there are no variations to decide anything other than “if this, then that”.

In other words, the same situation will occur over and over with only two results. There is no determination that there may be more issues, such as the potential for fraudulent activity.

Bottom line – There is no learning involved.

Writing a Learning Program

The ATM example is limited to two options, but AI is much more intensive than that. It is used to scan thousands of items of data to determine a conclusion.

How Netflix Does It

Did you ever wonder how Netflix shows you movies or TV shows that are tuned to your interests? It does this by examining what your preferences are based on your previous viewings.

The algorithm analyzes large amounts of data, including user preferences, viewing history, ratings, and other relevant information to make personalized recommendations for each user.

It employs machine learning to predict which movies or TV shows the user is likely to enjoy.

It identifies patterns and similarities between users with similar tastes and suggests content that has been positively received by those users but hasn’t been watched by the current user.

For example, if a user has watched science fiction movies, the recommendation might be to suggest other sci-fi films or TV shows that are popular among those users with similar preferences.

The program will learn and adapt as the user continues to interact with the platform, incorporating feedback from their ratings and viewings to refine future recommendations.

By leveraging machine learning, streaming platforms like Netflix can significantly enhance the user experience by providing tailored recommendations, increasing user engagement, and improving customer satisfaction.

This can’t be done using the non-learning ‘if-else’ program we previously spoke about in the ATM example.

A Gmail AI Example

As you type your email, Google reads it and then offers words to accompany the sentence that would coincide with what you are about to type before you have even typed it.

This is called language modeling which uses the Natural Language Process (NPL) model.

In NLP, the algorithm uses a factor of probability that is designed to predict the most likely next word in a sentence based on the previous entry.

AI algorithms feed on data to learn new things.
The more data (data points) that exist, the easier it will be for the model to identify the patterns of an unknown entity.

AI: How it All Works

There are three main types of machine learning: supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning.


Click CC above for closed caption

Supervised Learning

This is the most common type of machine learning. It involves feeding a computer a large amount of data to enable it to recognize patterns from the labeled dataset and make predictions when confronted with new data.

In other words, supervised learning consists of training a computer program to read from a data sample (dataset) to identify what the unknown data is. 

How the Machine Thinks with Supervised Learning

Poyab Bridge under construction, Freiburg, Switzerland
Photo: iStock

Show and Tell: A human labels a dataset with data points that identify the sample set to be a building.

Then the human does the same thing to identify a bridge. This is another classification different from the building classification and is identified with specific patterns that make up a bridge.

The program takes note of the patterns of each classification. If computer instructions were written in plain English, this is what it would say:

This is a bridge. Look at the patterns that make up the bridge. And this is a building. Look at the patterns that make up the building. I can see distinguishable differences in the characteristics between the two. Let me match them up to the unknown data and make a decision on whether this new data is a bridge or a building.

Supervised learning is used in many applications such as image recognition, speech recognition, and natural language processing.

Supervised learning uses a data sample to compare unknown data. The data sample is called a data model.

It’s Raining Cats and Dogs

A supervised learning algorithm could be trained using a set of images called “cats” and “dogs”, and each cat and dog are labeled with data points that distinguish each.

The program would be designed to learn the difference between the animals by using pattern recognition as it scans each image. 

A computer instruction (in simplified terms) might be “If you see a pattern of thin lines from the face (whiskers), then this is a cat”.

The result would be that the program would be able to make a distinction of whether the new image it is presented with is that of a cat or dog!

This type of learning involves two categories – cats and dogs. When only two classifications are involved, it is called Binary Classification.

Supervised Learning Usining Multi Classifications

An Example

Illustration of a fruit fly
Image by Mostafa Elturkey from Pixabay

Suppose you are studying insects and you want to separate flying insects from crawling ones. Well, that’s easy. You take a bug that you found in your backyard and compare it to the ant and fly you already stored on your insect board. In AI terms, this is supervised binary classification.

You immediately know, based on the pattern configuration of the insect which classification it belongs to – the crawlers or the flies. Now you grab more flies and put them in the fly category and do the same with the creepy crawlers for their category.

Let’s say you want to go deeper in the fly classification and find out what type of fly it is, (e.g. house fly, horse fly, fruit fly, horn fly, etc.); but you only have two classifications to compare them two – flies and crawlers, so what do we do? You create more classifications for the fly class.

This is multi-classifications, or more technically called multi-class classifications, which provide additional labeled classes for the algorithm to compare the new data to.

We will delve more into multi-class classifications and how this works in our next article, but for now, just know what binary classifications and multi-class clarifications are.

Unsupervised Learning

Colorful illustration of AI unsupervised clustering
Photo by Google DeepMind on Unsplash

Unsupervised learning involves training a computer program without providing any labels or markings to the data. The aim is to enable the program to find (learn) patterns and relationships on its own.

It does this by reading millions of pieces of information and grouping them into categories based on their characteristics or patterns, then making decisions on what the new entity is by matching it up to one of those categories.

In other words, it matches patterns of the unknown data to the groups it created and then labels them without human intervention. This is called clustering.

Anomaly detection is the task of identifying data points that are unusual or different from the rest of the data. This can be useful for tasks such as fraud detection and quality control.

Reinforcement Learning

Reinforcement learning (RL) learns by trial and error, receiving feedback in the form of rewards or penalties for their actions. Any negative number that gets assigned means it is punished.

The higher the negative number, the more the algorithm will learn not to pursue that particular circumstance and will subsequently try again until positive numbers are assigned, called a reward. It will continue this process until it is properly rewarded. The goal of RL is to maximize its rewards over time by finding a sequence of actions that leads to the highest possible reward. 

One of the defining features of RL is the use of a feedback loop in which the agent’s actions (an agent is the decision-making unit that is responsible for choosing actions in the environment that was provided to it). The loop permits the agent to learn from experience and adjust its behavior accordingly.

The feedback loop works as follows:

  1. The agent takes an action in its environment.
  2. The environment provides the agent with feedback about the action, such as a reward or punishment.
  3. The agent then updates its policy based on the feedback.
  4. The agent will repeat steps 1-3 until it learns to take actions that lead to desired outcomes (rewards).

RL has been applied to a wide range of problems, such as games, robotics, and autonomous driving. It is particularly useful in scenarios where the action may not be immediately clear and where exploration is necessary to find the best solution.

Conclusion

Overall, these AI methods are widely used in various industries and applications. We will continue to see growth and development as artificial intelligence technology advances.

What are the advances or dangers that AI can bring to the future? Read our article on the Pros and Cons of AI to find out.

Machine Language Terms to Know

  • Computer Instruction
  • Computer Program
  • Algorithm
  • Data Points
  • Patterns
  • Labeled Data
  • Dataset
  • Data Model
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Machine Learning
  • Binary Classification
  • Multiclass Classification
  • Supervised Learning
  • Unsupervised Learning
  • Reinforced Learning

How to Optimize for Voice Search in 2023

Illustration of voice seach with man at microphone
Image: iStock

Voice Search Overview

Voice search is here to stay and will only be gaining momentum as we proceed into the future and for those that are in marketing or SEOs, it is important to stay up to date with these features and optimize accordingly.

The processes behind voice and text search are quite different. Voice search queries may be longer and more complex, as people tend to ask questions in a conversational style, while text queries are typically shorter and more direct.

Another difference is in the way search results are presented. In text search, results are typically displayed on a search engine results page (SERP), with a list of links and brief descriptions. In contrast, voice search typically provides only the most relevant result, read aloud by a virtual assistant or smart speaker; such as Apple Siri, Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant and Microsoft Corona. This means that optimizing for voice search requires a different approach to traditional SEO, with an emphasis on providing clear, concise answers to common voice questions.

Searching by sound is an SEO component that cannot be overlooked and with the accelerating advancements in artificial intelligence, it is imperative that web developers and SEOs keep a watchful eye on this evolving technology.

The Statistics

Laptop computer showing statistics
Photo: iStock

As of the writing of this article, 32% of people between the age of 18 and 64 use a voice search medium (Alexa, Siri, Corona, etc.) and that number will only grow as we move to the future. 

Entering standard text search queries on mobile devices is commonplace, with over 60% of cell phone users text searching and 57% of mobile users taking advantage of voice search. 

It should be no surprise that Google is the most successful interpreter of audio searches with a 95% accuracy.

In a study in 2021, 66.3 million households in the US were forecasted to own a smart speaker and that forecast has become a reality as of 2023.

Voice technology stretches beyond search queries as 44% of homeowners use voice assistants to turn on TVs and lights, as well as an array of other smart home devices currently on the market. 

With statistics as these, speaking to robotic assistants is here to stay and will only be growing with new technologies as we proceed through the 2020s and beyond. 

How Does Voice Search Work?

Woman speaking into a moblie phone
Photo: iStock

The Physics Behind It

If you just need to know that there is an analog-to-digital conversion and are not interested in the specifics of how it’s done, you can skip this part and go to the next section, which is Where Does the Data Come From?

We will summarize the process of how the sound of human speech is converted into machine language, which is filtering and digitizing.

Filtering: Smart speakers and voice assistants are designed to recognize the human voice over background noise and other sounds; hence, they filter out negative sounds so that they can only hear our voices.

Digitizing: All sound is naturally created in analog frequencies (use of sinewaves). Computers cannot decode analog frequencies. They must be converted to the computer language of binary code.

Below are the details of how an analog signal is converted to digital. 

The Analog Conversion Process

Illustration of a sine wave
Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

|n order to make this conversion, an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is required. The ADC works by sampling the analog signal at regular intervals and converting each sample into a digital value. 

The steps are as follows:

    1. Sampling: The first step is to sample the analog signal at a fixed interval. The sampling rate must be high enough to capture all the frequencies of interest in the analog signal. The Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem states that the sampling rate must be at least twice the highest frequency in the signal. Sampling means taking regular measurements of the amplitude (or voltage) of the signal at specific points in time and converting those measurements into a digital signal. Sampling is necessary in order to convert analog sound waves into digital signals, which are easier to store, transmit, and process using digital systems such as computers or microcontrollers. The rate at which the analog signal is sampled, known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency, is important because it determines the level of detail that can be captured in the digital signal. Sampling an analog signal is an important step in converting it to a digital signal that can be analyzed, manipulated, or transmitted using digital systems.
    2. Quantization: Once the analog signal is sampled, the next step involves assigning a digital value to each sample based on its amplitude. The resolution of the quantization process is determined by the number of bits used to represent each sample. The higher the number of bits, the greater the resolution of the digital signal.
    3. Encoding: The final step is to encode the quantized samples into a digital format. This can be done using various encoding techniques such as pulse code modulation (PCM) or delta modulation.

Overall, the main process of converting analog to digital frequencies involves sampling, quantization, and encoding. The resulting digital signal can then be processed using digital signal processing techniques.

In summary: Smart speakers and voice assistants take in the audio from a person’s speech and convert it to machine language.

Where Does the Data Come From?

Outline of a computer screen wiht a cloud behind it
Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

Information gathered from smart speakers and voice assistants pulls data from an aggregate of sources.

If you want your business to grow, you must be attentive to where content for voice search is collected so that you can make intelligent decisions regarding how to optimize for these devices. 

Amazon Alexa

When Alexa responds to a query, it relies on Microsoft’s Bing search engine for the answer. Why? Because Amazon, as well as Microsoft, are in direct competition with Google, even though Google has the most popular search engine in the world. 

Amazon’s refusal to use Google for audio responses is not something to be concerned about. After all, Bing’s search algorithms are very similar to Google’s.

With that said, if a person speaks to Alexa with a specific request, (e.g. “What’s the weather today?”), Alexa can pull that information from a database associated with that request. In this case, Alexa will connect to Accuweather. The device can access Wikipedia and Yelp if it needs to as well.

Apple Siri

Initially, Apple used Bing as its default search engine, but in 2017, Apple partnered with Google. Now, when you say “Hey Siri”, you can expect Siri to access the immense data repository from Google and supply the answer. This applies to the Safari browser for text searches as well.

There is a caveat though. When it comes to local business searches, Siri will call on Apple Maps data and will use Yelp for review information.

Microsoft Cortona

This one is probably the most straightforward out of all of the search engines, as Cortona relies on what else but Microsoft Bing for its information. 

Google Assistant

OK, this one’s a no-brainer. Google can currently index trillions of pages to retrieve information and since this also applies to Apple’s Siri, this section is of most importance if you want to optimize voice search for these voice assistants.

In most cases, Google and Siri will read from Google’s featured snippet.

So What is a Featured Snippet?

Screenshot of a Google featured snippet
Image: © SMS

Featured snippets are what you see after you run a Google search query. It is a paragraph that appears at the top of the page that summarizes the answer to a question.

The information that Google applies to the snippet is gathered from, what Google determines to be the most reliable source (website) for that information.

How Does Google Determine a Featured Snippet?

For a snippet to be posted by Google, it needs to know that the source is trustworthy via its domain authority, link juice and high-quality content, to name three important organic factors, as any SEOs would already know, but in addition to these factors, Google will defer to “HowTo” and FAQ pages most often to pull in the snippet.

Is Structured Data Needed?

Structured data is extra code that helps Google better understand what the page or parts of the page are about.

One might wonder if structured data has to be used in order to provide the featured snippet? The answer is no. As per Google, as long as the web page is optimized properly and contains the questions that equate to the user’s query or voice search in this case, structured data is not necessary; however, if it wouldn’t hurt to put it in, as we all are aware that nothing is static in the SEO world and this rule can easily change in the future.

The reason why Google focuses on “HowTo” and FAQ pages is that their content reflects that of human speech. For example, an FAQ page on EV cars may have the question “How long do EV batteries last?” – That is exactly how a person would ask a voice assistant that same question!

An ‘Action’ for Google Assistant is created, equivalent to an Alexa Skill and Google will read the snippet back to the user to answer the question he/she asked.

Summarizing Optimization for Voice Search

Alexa

Bing: If you have not already done so, bring Bing into your scope of work for SEO and start optimizing for this search engine.

Yelp: We all know that reviews are of the utmost importance, so check out Yelp for your or your client’s business and build on those reviews! Legitimately of course.

Siri

Google SEO: If you are already optimizing for Google’s search, just keep up the good work.  

Apple Factors: Where you might not be fully optimized is with Apple Maps, so get going. Start by registering with Apple Business Connect.

Yelp: And now Yelp is back in the picture!

Cortona

Bing: As mentioned, become an SEO Bing expert and you are ready to ask Cortona anything.

Google

Besides the standard organic optimization, focus on schema markup for HowTo and FAQ articles for voice search, which, if you’re lucky, will be shown on the SERP as a featured snippet.

There you have it. How to optimize for voice search. Let’s get these robots configured so that our businesses will be the first thing you hear from your voice assistant!

 

 

The Pros and Cons of AI

Human hand touching a brain and AI hand touching a brain
Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

Overview

Are you afraid of what AI can do or are you looking forward to the benefits it can provide? Part of your decision would be based on whether you feel that the glass is half full or half empty, but the reality is that there are always consequences to technological advancements. Hopefully, we can honestly say a lot of it will be for the good of humankind, but let’s not be naive and think three won’t be those nefarious individuals looking to selfishly benefit at the expense of the rest of us.

One example would be the development of the atom bomb, which was the result of Einstein’s theory of relativity, even though the scientist had no idea of the frightening consequences his theory would bring.

Enter AI 

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly growing field that has the potential to transform our world in countless ways. From healthcare to finance, education and transportation, AI can benefit us in a myriad of ways, but not everyone is on board with this as we will see in this article. 

Regardless, artificial intelligence is advancing at an exceptional rate whether we like it or not, as our AI avatars explain below.

So let’s take a look at both the positives and negatives of artificial intelligence and what it can potentially have for us and then you can decide.

The Benefits

Advancement on Healthcare

Medical Technology
Photo: Pixabay

One of the most significant benefits of AI is its potential to revolutionize healthcare. AI can analyze vast amounts of medical data, including patient records, lab results and imaging studies.

With this information, its algorithms can detect patterns and make predictions that could help doctors diagnose and treat diseases more accurately and quickly than ever before. It can also help identify high-risk patients, allowing doctors to intervene early and prevent diseases from progressing.

Transportation

Photo of traffic
Photo: Free Images

Artificial intelligence can be used to optimize traffic flow and reduce congestion and subsequently, travel time for busy commuters.

Moving not too far into the future are autonomous vehicles – cars that drive themselves. There are some being tested now, such as Teslar and Google and Teslar already has autonomous vehicles on the market, but a driver must remain inside.

When it does become mainstream, self-driving cars, buses and trains have the potential to significantly reduce accidents, traffic congestion, and pollution. By removing the human element from driving, these vehicles can make our roads safer and more efficient.

Education

A young man with long hair is working on a laptop. hands close up
Photo: iStock

Artificial intelligence can also be used to improve education. AI-powered tutoring systems can provide personalized, adaptive learning experiences for students of all ages and abilities.

By analyzing a student’s learning style, strengths and weaknesses, these systems can create customized lesson plans that help them learn more effectively. This can lead to improved academic outcomes and greater educational equity, as students who may struggle with traditional teaching methods can receive tailored instruction that meets their needs.

One caveat is the temptation for students to cheat by using apps such as Chat GPT, but alert teachers should be able to tell the difference by determining if the student’s writing style has changed.  With that said, this will still be a challenge for educators.

Finance

Ai can be used to detect fraud, manage risk and optimize investments. By analyzing financial data,  machine learning algorithms can detect patterns that may indicate fraudulent activity, alerting financial institutions to potential threats before they cause significant damage.

Additionally, it can help financial institutions manage risk more effectively by predicting market fluctuations and identifying potential investments that offer high returns with low risk.

Law Enforcement

AI-powered surveillance systems can detect potential threats in public spaces, alerting law enforcement and allowing them to respond more quickly.

It can also be used to analyze crime data, helping law enforcement identify patterns and allocate resources more effectively. Indeed, New York City Mayor Eric Adams introduced crime-fighting robots to the Times Square area and if they prove productive, they will be placed all over the city.

The Environment

Illustration of the effects of climate change, showing grass and then barren ground
Photo: iStock

By analyzing environmental data, AI can help us understand the impacts of human activity on the planet and develop strategies to mitigate them. For example, it can help us optimize energy consumption, reduce waste and improve recycling efforts. Additionally, AI can help us predict and respond to natural disasters, reducing their impact on human lives and property.

The Negatives

Of course, as with any powerful technology, AI also poses some risks and challenges. One concern is the potential for it to be used in ways that violate privacy or human rights.

Additionally, the use of AI in decision-making processes could result in biases or discrimination if the algorithms are not carefully designed and monitored. Finally, there is the risk that AI could become too powerful, leading to unintended consequences or even threatening human existence.

To mitigate these risks, we must approach AI development with caution and foresight. We must ensure that AI is developed and used in ways that prioritize human welfare and respect human rights. This requires ongoing dialogue and collaboration between technologists, policymakers and the public, as well as strict laws that prohibit collusion and/or intentionally skewing the algorithms. 

Potential Dangers

Unknown person in black sourrounded by binary code
Photo: Pixabay

Artificial Intelligence can pose significant dangers that need to be addressed. Similar to the potential dangers of the use of quantum computers, the same threats are associated with AI.

The Labor Question

No doubt, unemployment due to artificial intelligence is a major concern. As this technology advances, it becomes increasingly capable of performing tasks that were once done by humans, leading to job loss and economic disruption.

For example, self-driving cars have the potential to replace human drivers, which would lead to unemployment in the transportation sector. This could result in a significant reduction in the workforce and an increase in social inequality.

Discrimination

Another danger is its ability to perpetuate biases and discrimination. Algorithms are designed to learn from data, and if the data used is biased, the AI will also be biased. This can result in unfair decisions being made, such as in hiring, lending, or criminal justice. It can have significant negative impacts on individuals and communities.

The Military

Photo: U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Michael Moriatis/Released. Wikimedia CC.

AI could pose a significant threat to global security. With technological advancements increasing in this arena technology, it is becoming increasingly possible for computers to be used in cyber-attacks or even to control weapons systems. This could lead to significant risks and damages, such as loss of life or damage to critical infrastructure.

Malicious Financial Behavior

Woman gestering in awe looking at computer laptop
Photo: iStock

The financial markets would most likely be the most affected by artificial intelligence, both for good and bad. We have already discussed the good, but the bad is already a concern. There can be serious consequences that could affect the banks and stock market as nefarious individuals try to override the algorithms with corrupt data and computer instructions. The expression “What’s in your wallet” will have a  much greater significance should malicious AI alter your bank accounts.

A Question of Morals

Finally, the development of AI could also pose ethical and moral dilemmas. As these algorithms become more intelligent, questions arise about their autonomy and decision-making capabilities. If an AI system makes a decision that is morally or ethically questionable, who is held accountable? What happens if an AI system is programmed to harm humans or perform unethical tasks?

AI in a Nutshell

Artificial intelligence can help us solve some of the biggest challenges facing our society. However, we must approach AI with caution and foresight, taking steps to mitigate risks and ensure that this technology is used in ways that prioritize humanity and respect human rights. With careful planning and collaboration, we can harness the power of Artificial Intelligence to create a better future for all!

 

What’s the Difference Between a Building Spire and Antenna?

Introduction:

Many skyscrapers may feature protruding elements on their roofs that serve different purposes. Two common rooftop structures are spires and antennas. While both structures may appear similar from a distance, they have other functions and designs. This essay will explore the differences between building spires and antennas.

The Feud Between Spires and Antennas

One World Trade Center - Freedom Tower photographed from Broadway
One World Trade Center – Freedom Tower looking south from Broadway. Photo SMS ©

When the new One World Trade Center (AKA Freedom Tower) in New York City was completed, the owners laid claim that this was the tallest building in the western hemisphere, rising to a symbolic height of 1,776 feet. The number represents the year the Declaration of Independence was created.

Willis Tower Chicago
Willis Tower. Photo: Photos of a Lifetime ©

But all is not rosy when the owners of the Chicago Willis Tower had something to say about it. They claimed that the 408-foot steel attachment that was placed on the top of the Freedom Tower should not count and subsequently, the 1,451-foot Willis Tower should still be considered the tallest building in the western hemisphere.

Interesting note: The Empire State Building has a spire and an antenna!

Enter The Council of Tall Buildings


Someone needed to step in and resolve this and the international non-profit Council of Tall Buildings did just that and their conclusion was that the Freedom Tower is the tallest

Reason is that there is a difference between a spire and antenna and spires count. Antennas don’t, of which they concluded that One World Trade Center has a spire.

Now let’s take a look and see why this is the case.

Function

The primary function of a building spire is to enhance the aesthetics of the structure. Spires can add architectural interest to a building and make it stand out in a cityscape. They come in different shapes and sizes and can be made from various materials, such as metal or stone. Spires can also have religious or symbolic significance, as they are often found in churches or other historical buildings.

Antennas, on the other hand, have a functional purpose. They are designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves, such as television or radio signals. Antennas can also be used for communication purposes, such as transmitting mobile phone signals or internet data. They are typically made of metal and are shaped to optimize the reception or transmission of waves.

Design 

Spires and antennas have distinct designs that reflect their functions. Building spires are often ornamental and decorative and conform to the building’s architecture or aesthetic design. 

They can be designed in various shapes and sizes, such as a pointed Gothic spire or a round domed spire. Spires are typically made of materials that can withstand weather and environmental factors.

Antennas, on the other hand, have a practical design that is optimized for their function. The shape of an antenna is critical to its performance in capturing or emitting electromagnetic waves. 

Antennas can be designed in different shapes, such as a Yagi antenna or a dipole antenna, depending on the specific frequency range they are intended to operate within. The size and placement of an antenna are also crucial factors that can affect its performance.

Location

Spires and antennas are located on different parts of a building. Spires are typically located at the top of a building, either on the roof or on a tower. They are often used to create a distinctive silhouette or to draw attention to the building. Spires are usually visible from a distance, which makes them an essential part of a building’s architecture.

Antennas, on the other hand, can be located anywhere on a building’s roof or facade. The location of an antenna depends on various factors, such as the type of signals it is designed to capture or transmit and the obstacles in the surrounding area. Antennas can also be located on poles or towers outside of a building.

Regulation

The regulation of spires and antennas differs. Building codes typically regulate the design and construction of spires. There may be height restrictions or other regulations that limit the size or shape of a spire. Spires may also be subject to aesthetic guidelines to ensure they fit in with the surrounding architecture.

Antennas, on the other hand, are subject to a different set of regulations. In many countries, the construction of antennas is regulated by government agencies, such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States. These agencies are responsible for ensuring that antennas are safe and do not interfere with other electronic devices or signals. Antennas may also be subject to zoning regulations that limit their size or placement.

Conclusion

In summary, while building spires and antennas may appear similar from a distance, they have different functions, designs, locations, and regulations. Spires are decorative elements that enhance the aesthetics of a building, while antennas are functional structures that capture or emit electromagnetic waves. 

The design of a spire is ornamental, while the design of an antenna is optimized for its function. The location of a spire is typically on the roof or tower of a building, while the location.

And there lies the reason why the Freedom Tower stands to be the official tallest building in the western hemisphere.

 

Artifical Intelligence: The Pros and Cons

Human hand touching a brain and AI hand touching a brain
Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

The Quandary of AI

Are you afraid of what AI can do or are you looking forward to the benefits it can provide?  Part of your decision would be based on personality glass is half full or the glass is half empty, but there are always consequences to technological advancements, whether for the good of humankind or for those looking to gain an upper hand in a nefarious manner. The development of the atom bomb was the result of Einstein’s theory of relativity, even though the scientist had no idea of the negative consequences his theory would bring.

Let’s take a look at both the positives and negatives of artificial intelligence and what it can potentially have for us and then you can make a decision.

AI Overview

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly growing field that has the potential to transform our world in countless ways. From healthcare to finance, and education transportation, AI can benefit mankind in a myriad of ways, but not everyone is on board with this as we will see in this article, the good and the bad of the advancements of artificial intelligence. 

The Benefits

Advancement on Healthcare

Doctor at a laptop
Photo: IStock

One of the most significant benefits of AI is its potential to revolutionize healthcare. AI can analyze vast amounts of medical data, including patient records, lab results, and imaging studies.

With this information, AI algorithms can detect patterns and make predictions that could help doctors diagnose and treat diseases more accurately and quickly. It can also help identify high-risk patients, allowing doctors to intervene early and prevent diseases from progressing.

Transportation

Cars in traffic
Photo: iStock

Another area where artificial intelligence can benefit us is in the field of transportation. Self-driving cars, buses, and trains have the potential to significantly reduce accidents, traffic congestion, and pollution. By removing the human element from driving, these vehicles can make our roads safer and more efficient.

Additionally, AI can be used to optimize traffic flow, reducing congestion and travel times. This can save time and money for individuals and businesses alike.

Education

AI can also be used to improve education. AI-powered tutoring systems can provide personalized, adaptive learning experiences for students of all ages and abilities. By analyzing a student’s learning style, strengths, and weaknesses, these systems can create customized lesson plans that help them learn more effectively. This can lead to improved academic outcomes and greater educational equity, as students who may struggle with traditional teaching methods can receive tailored instruction that meets their needs.

Finance

Graph of gold on the rise
Photo: GraphicStock

Detecting fraud, managing risk, and optimizing investments are just three of the ways AI is being used to advance the financial sector. By analyzing financial data, algorithms can detect patterns that may indicate fraudulent activity, alerting financial institutions to potential threats before they cause significant damage.

Additionally, AI can help them manage risk more effectively by predicting market fluctuations and identifying potential investments that offer high returns with low risk.

AI can also benefit society by improving public safety. AI-powered surveillance systems can detect potential threats in public spaces, alerting law enforcement and allowing them to respond more quickly. AI can also be used to analyze crime data, helping law enforcement identify patterns and allocate resources more effectively.

The Environment

Illustration of the effects of climate change, showing grass and then barren ground
Photo: iStock

Finally, AI can benefit mankind by helping us protect the environment. By analyzing environmental data, AI can help us understand the impacts of human activity on the planet and develop strategies to mitigate them. For example, AI can help us optimize energy consumption, reduce waste, and improve recycling efforts. Additionally, AI can help us predict and respond to natural disasters, reducing their impact on human lives and property.

The Benefits of AI – A Summary

AI has the potential to benefit mankind in countless ways. From healthcare to education, finance to public safety, and the environment. It can help us solve some of the biggest challenges facing our society. However, we must approach AI development with caution and foresight, taking steps to mitigate risks and ensure that it is used in ways that prioritize human welfare and respect for human rights. With careful planning and collaboration, we can harness the power of machine learning to create a better future for all.

Potential Dangers

Unknown person in black sourrounded by binary code
Photo: Pixabay

Artificial Intelligence can pose significant dangers that need to be addressed. Similar to the potential dangers of the use of quantum computers, the same threats are associated with AI.

One concern is the potential for it to be used in ways that violate privacy or human rights. Additionally, the use of AI in decision-making processes could result in biases or discrimination if the algorithms are not carefully designed and monitored. Finally, there is the risk that it could become too powerful, leading to unintended consequences or even threatening human existence.

The Labor Question

As AI technology advances, it becomes increasingly capable of performing tasks that were once done by humans, leading to job loss and economic disruption. For example, self-driving cars have the potential to replace human drivers, which would lead to unemployment in the transportation sector. This could result in a significant reduction in the workforce and an increase in social inequality.

AI and Bias

Another danger of AI is its ability to perpetuate biases and discrimination. AI algorithms are designed to learn from data, and if the data used is biased, the AI will also be biased. This can result in unfair decisions being made by AI systems, such as in hiring, lending, or criminal justice. This can have significant negative impacts on individuals and communities.

Global Security

Furthermore, AI could pose a significant threat to global security. With advancements in AI technology, it is becoming increasingly possible for AI systems to be used in cyber-attacks or even to control weapons systems. This could lead to significant risks and damages, such as loss of life or damage to critical infrastructure.

Nefarious Exploitation

Finally, the development of AI could also pose ethical and moral dilemmas. As machine language systems become more intelligent, questions arise about their autonomy and decision-making capabilities. If an AI system makes a decision that is morally or ethically questionable, who is held accountable? What happens if it is programmed to harm humans or perform unethical tasks?

In a Nutshell

Artificial Intelligence Illustration AI
Image by Tumisu from Pixabay

While AI has the potential to bring significant benefits, it is important to be cautious in its development and use. The dangers of should be taken seriously and addressed through proper regulation and oversight. It is important to ensure that AI systems are developed and used responsibly and ethically to minimize the potential risks and maximize the benefits of this technology.

To mitigate these risks, we must approach AI with caution and foresight. We must ensure that AI is developed and used in ways that prioritize human welfare and respect human rights. This requires ongoing dialogue and collaboration between technologists, policymakers, and the public.

With that said, we do have the opportunity to live better in all aspects of our lives and it is well worth something for all of us to look forward to!

 

Suspension Bridges: How are They Constructed

Poyab Bridge under construction, Freiburg, Switzerland
Poyab Bridge under construction, Fribourg, Switzerland. Photo: iStock

Suspension bridges are among the most impressive engineering feats, with their long spans and elegant designs. These bridges rely on the strength of cables and towers to support the cables which provide safe passage over rivers, gorges, and other obstacles.

In this article, we will explore how suspension bridges are constructed.

Bridge Suspension Cables

Cables on Royal George Bridge - Colorado
Suspension Cable on Royal George Bridge – Colorado. Each cable is made up of 2100 galvanized steel wires. Photo: ©SMS

Once the towers are in place, the cables can be installed. The cables are assembled on the ground and then lifted into place using cranes or other heavy machinery. The cables are anchored to the towers using large steel plates, which are bolted to the tower and embedded in the concrete foundation. The cables are also anchored to the ground using massive concrete blocks, which are buried deep below the surface of the earth to provide a secure anchor point.

Suspension cables are an essential part of the suspension bridge design, which hold up the load (bridge deck or road) and are braced by towers on each side of the bridge. Anchoring the cables to the towers, or sometimes to the ground on both sides, enables the load to stretch across the entire span of the bridge without any further bracing required (e.g. truss or arches holding it up).

The cables are typically made of high-strength steel wires woven together that act as one unit. These cables can weigh thousands of tons and must be anchored securely to the towers and the ground.

The tension in the main cables is transferred to the suspension cables, which then transfer the weight of the bridge deck to the towers and anchorages at the ends of the bridge.

The towers provide additional support to the bridge and help to distribute the weight of the bridge evenly.

In the photo above of the Royal Gorge Bridge in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, each of the cables consists of 2100 galvanized steel wires.

Bridge Deck

With the cables in place, the next step is to construct the bridge deck. The deck is typically made of steel or reinforced concrete and is suspended from the cables using hangers. The hangers are attached to the cables using large steel pins and are spaced at regular intervals to provide support for the deck. The deck is often assembled on the ground and then lifted into place using cranes or other heavy machinery.

Once the deck is in place, the final touches can be added. This includes the installation of guardrails, lighting, and other safety features, as well as the application of the final coat of paint. The bridge is then inspected to ensure that it meets all safety standards and is ready for use.

Summary

In conclusion, suspension bridges are an incredible feat of engineering, requiring meticulous planning, precision construction, and rigorous safety testing. The construction process involves the careful placement of towers, the installation of massive cables, and the suspension of the bridge deck. Despite the challenges involved, suspension bridges have become an iconic symbol of human ingenuity and technological advancement, connecting people and places all over the world.

The Iconic Chrysler Building

Overview

Chrysler Building form 42nd Street
Photo: ©SMS

Still the tallest brick building in the world and currently, the 11th tallest building in NYC, the Chrysler Building has been noted as one of the most graceful art-deco buildings ever built, the 1,046-foot (319 meters) skyscraper adorns the New York skyline with its silver spire, eagles, and scary gargoyles. 

Constructed by Chrysler Car Corporation, the building was designed to reflect the automotive industry with a decorated granite lobby, a showroom for the latest Chrysler cars, and its hood ornaments enriching the building’s exterior which is designed to resemble radiator caps.

Architect William Van Alen designed this masterpiece. 

Location

New York City donated the land between 42nd and 43rd streets and Lexington Ave to The Cooper Union school in 1902 before the Chrysler Corporation took it over in the 1920s. 

Located just west was the Grand Hyatt Building, now being demolished to make way for the supertall 175 Park Avenue, which wasn’t without controversy since many feel it will block the skyline view of the Chrysler from the west side. 

The Design

Close up collage of the Chrysler Building
Radiator caps on the Chrysler Building’ Photo: ©SMS

The Chrysler Building is laminated with Nirosta stainless steel, which is a metallic alloy of 18% chromium and 8% nickel, but contrary to popular opinion, the structure does not have scary gargoyles.

Starting on the 31st floor, we see radiator caps, relative to the year the building was constructed, and embellished, and then, moving up to the 61st floor, we find silver eagles, representing the official bird of the United States.

The eagles that some do call gargoyles are made of stainless steel and are approximately 20 feet tall, including the pedestal they stand on. They were designed to be both decorative and functional, serving as lightning rods to protect the building from strikes.

There are a total of 50 ornaments in all that adorn the Chrysler Building. The skyscraper contains 3,826,000 bricks a total of 3,862 windows.

Engineering

The Chrysler Building does not have gargoyles. Instead, it features eagle head sculptures called “Eagle Gargoyles” or “Eagle Finials” on the corners of the 61st floor. These sculptures were designed by American sculptor William Van Alen, who also designed the rest of the building’s decorative elements.

The eagle gargoyles are made of stainless steel and measure approximately 20 feet tall, including the pedestal they stand on. They were designed to be both decorative and functional, serving as lightning rods to protect the building from strikes.

The building has a solid core that stabilizes the structure and setbacks that help deviate wind forces.

Spire War

Top of Chrysler Building Includig Spire
Top of Chrysler Building Including Spire. Image by Pexels from Pixabay

During its construction, the building was in the midst of a battle with Lower Manhattan’s Bank of Manhattan at 40 Wall Street (now owned by Donald Trump) regarding who would have the tallest building in the world. 

The Chrysler Building was rising four floors a day and in 1929, both buildings reached 925 feet, but 40 Wall’s architect H. Craig Severance added two more feet to the top of his building, laying claim that it is now the world’s tallest building.

This distinction lasted briefly as William Van Alen secretly built a seven-story, twenty-seven-ton spire inside the Chrysler Building. Just a few weeks after the Bank of Manhattan claimed its fame, Van Allen lifted the spire through the roof of the Chrysler Building, and within 1½ hours, it became the world’s tallest, soaring 77 stories and 1,046 feet high (319 meters), beating the Bank of Manhattan by 119 feet. 

It wasn’t long before the Chrysler Building would lose its status though, as the Empire State Building topped it out only one year later in 1931. 

The Observatory

Back in the day, there was a speakeasy on the 66th, 67th, and 68th floors called the Cloud Club and there was an observatory, but for over 60 years, this has not been the case. That will all change soon. In 2020, the Landmarks Preservation Commission approved rebuilding a new observatory on the 61st floor, right alongside the eagle ornaments. 

Construction has not started yet but you can sign up for it and be notified when the observatory becomes a reality.

Chrysler’s Beauty Endures

No matter what skyscrapers might encircle it, nothing will keep the building’s brilliant art-deco stainless steel design and its majestic spire from decorating the City of New York skyline. Many consider the Chrysler Building to be the most beautiful in the city.

 

Potential Life-Sustaining Planets are Closer and Closer

SMACS 0723A galaxy cluster
Infrared light shows the deepest view of distant galaxies ever photographed. JWST Photo: NASA Public Domain

Overview 

The question of extraterrestrial life on other worlds has baffled even the foremost scientists for millennia. With the Hubble telescope and now, the James Webb telescope floating in the cosmos a million miles from Earth, we are finding more and more life-sustaining planets on a frequent virtual basis.

This is different from space observatories being able to determine the existence of exoplanets by spectrum analysis, calculating their gravitational pull from their sun, or by use of the transit methodan observational process whereby a star changes in brightness when a planet is seen orbiting around it. The JWST advanced technology surpassed those methods by actually taking pictures of these exoplanets. This is the first time this has ever been done! 

Exoplanets with Life? Maybe!

In 2013, a team of astronomers led by Dr. Duncan Wright from the University of New South Wales discovered the Wolf 1061 System, using the HARPS spectrograph, part of the European Southern Observatory’s telescope in La Salla in Chile. 

This solar system contains an inactive red dwarf star, orbited by possibly seven planets including three super-Earths. These planets may be capable of supporting life as we know it, as they have a low enough mass to be potentially rocky with a solid surface. 

The most interesting of the three planets is Wolf 1061c. At four times the size of the Earth, it is the closest habitable planet outside our solar system. It also sits in the Goldilocks Zone, close enough to its sun to contain liquid water and support life with its mild temperatures. 

Artist's impression of the planetary system around Wolf 1061
Artist’s impression of the planetary system around Wolf 1061. Photo: Wikipedia Public Domain

Even though rocky planets similar to our own and multi-planet systems are known to be abundant in our galaxy, most of the ones discovered are hundreds, if not thousands of light years away. They are too far for us to get to using current technology.

Still, with the hope of Wolf 1061c sitting right next door, scientists are now hopeful that they can test the planet’s atmosphere in more detail once it passes across the face of its star, making the not-so-lone Wolf planet easier to study and determine if it has the potential to sustain life.

Life is Out There

Illustration of an extraterrestrial
Photo: iStock

Here we list a sampling of just a few exoplanets that could sustain life. 

WASP-39 b

In 2022, the James Webb Telescope discovered a planet, called WASP-39 b in the Virgo constellation. Known as ‘Bocaprins’, the planet orbits a star about 700 light-years from Earth. Scientists were surprised to see that this planet’s atomic structure resembles water and carbon – two of the essential ingredients of universal life.

Kepler-186f

But that’s not all. Planets such as Kepler-186f are one of the planets that astronomers say have a very good chance of potential life, relative to the hundreds of other planets discovered outside of our solar system. Kepler-186f is the first exoplanet found to be in the habitable zone. Slightly larger than Earth, it is 490 light-years away. That’s not too far comparatively speaking.

Kepler-22b

Another close neighbor in the habitable zone is Kepler-22b. This body is about 150 light-years further away than Kepler-186 but has the promise of life just the same. It is about 15% closer to its sun than our Earth is to our sun, but its sun is smaller than ours, so there is a compensation effect where these two factors cancel each other out. 

Subsequently, it still provides the opportunity for the planet to remain in the habitable zone. Kepler-22b has a surface temperature of 72℉. This sounds like a good vacation spot when we get to that point of space travel. For Star Trek fans, you can envision the beautiful planets the crew visited when on shore leave. Well, not so fast.

Kepler-22b might be more on its axis than Earth, meaning half of the planet may have all sunlight 24×7 and the other half may be in complete darkness for every (of that) planet’s six months. Further study has revealed that the planet may be 90% ocean or more; thereby compensating for the seasonal issues. 

Additionally, Kepler-22b has been calculated to have a much stronger gravitational pull than our planet, so walking on this planet may be as hard as trying to walk briskly through water at the same speed that you would be walking on land. 

But if there are creatures on this planet, intelligent or not, natural evolution may cause these beings to look much different from us. Due to the planet’s strong gravitational pull, the aliens may have budging feet full of muscles that would make the strongest man in the world look like a stick figure. They may have more than just two or four legs. Additionally, their internal organs would have to be naturally engineered to handle the physical stresses of the planet’s strong gravity; such as an overly large heart.

The Day the Earth May Stand Still 

If Kepler-22b is life sustainable, it would take astronauts 635 years to get there. So since that is out of the question for us, but if there is intelligent life there or on other planets, their technology might provide a quicker way to come here and visit us. But is that what we would want?  

Howard Fensterman Minerals